One of the first difficulties to survive is to determine the location where we are, before deciding on the direction to follow in search of a known place or a position that facilitates our rescue.
There are various means to orient ourselves in the field.
Astronomical: Using the sun, moon and stars.
Mechanical: Using the compass or the clock.
Topographic: Using plans, charts or maps, etc.
Natural: By indications and reviews.
Orientation through the letter
If the region card is taken, the first step is to orient it, using any of the following procedures:
By terrain features: Identify previously the most notable features of the terrain, then rotating the card, make them coincide with the graphed counterparts on it.
With the compass: Place the compass on the chart and rotate it until the North-South lines of the square are parallel with the compass needle and the North of the chart coincides with the North of the compass. Then rotate it again until it marks the magnetic declination. If the chart contains the marginal information of the magnetic declination, orient it directly on it.
Orientation by the sun
Opening the arms in a cross and pointing with the right arm to the place where the sun rises, we have: In front of us the North, behind us the South, to the right the East and to the
Orientation by the moon
There are four phases of the moon: full moon, new moon, waning quarter, and waxing quarter.
The moon is a valuable help to find your way around at night. It rises in the East and sets in the West, similar to the sun.
To orient yourself by means of the moon, proceed in the same way as indicated for the sun.
It is necessary to remember that when the moon is in the waning quarter, the points point to the East, while when it is in the waxing quarter, the points point to the East.
West. In both cases, the line determined by the two points indicates approximately the North-South direction.
Orientation by means of the sun and the clock
Place the watch on a flat surface with the dial facing up. A toothpick, match or needle is located on the number 12 of the dial, vertically to it. Accuracy requires that the toothpick be as thin as possible. Rotate the clock until the shadow of the toothpick passes over the number 6. The bisector of the angle formed by the shadow of 12 and the small needle of the clock gives the exact direction of NORTH. The extension of this bisector to the opposite side will mark the SOUTH.
Orientation by the Southern Cross
When you are south of the equator, you use the Southern Cross to orient yourself.
On the direction of the largest arm and in a straight line, a distance equal to five times the largest arm is measured, and from that point a perpendicular to the horizon is lowered until it intersects the terrain; the point of interception will point to the South.
Orientation by the Big Dipper
This constellation, which is in the Northern Hemisphere, is visible in all latitudes of Peru and it is easy to identify it due to its characteristic shape of an inverted saucepan with the handle curved upwards. The body of the constellation is formed by four stars and the handle by three.
The two brightest stars of those that form the body and that are on the opposite side of the handle, will be joined by an imaginary line that extends downwards; the point where this line intersects the horizon will determine the approximate direction of North.
Orientation by mechanical means
Of these means the best known is that of the compass. The magnetic needle of the compass marks the direction of magnetic North.
There are two problems that can arise when marching towards a course: Given a direction, take the course and given the course, take the direction on the ground.
Given the direction take the course
Place the compass horizontal leaving the needle free and look in the desired direction.
Without moving the compass, rotate the limb until the North of the limb coincides with the needle.
Read the degrees marked by the index or direction indicator that will be the heading.
Given the heading find the direction
Rotate the limb until the direction indicator marks the course and, leaving the needle free, confirm a point on the ground so that the magnetic needle coincides with the North of the limb.